Site References

References 

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 2 Centers for Disease Control. September 10, 2018. Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance (AR / AMR). As found at: https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/index.html 22 Ford, A. July 2017. With diversion, lower blood culture contamination rates. As found at: http://captodayonline.com/diversion-lower-blood-culture-contamination-rates/

  3 Vincent Liu, MD, MS; Gabriel J. Escobar, MD; John D. Greene, MA; et al. July 2, 2014. Hospital Deaths in Patients With Sepsis From 2 Independent Cohorts. Journal of the American Medical Association. JAMA. 2014;312(1):90-92. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5804. As found at: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1873131?resultClick=3  

4 Celeste M. Torio, Ph.D., M.P.H., and Brian J. Moore, Ph.D. May 2016. National Inpatient Hospital Costs: The Most Expensive Conditions by Payer, 2013. Statistical Brief #204. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. As found at: https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb204-Most-Expensive-Hospital- Conditions.pdf 

 5 Lang. E and Hutchinson, S. (2012). Challenges and Opportunities in Low Resource Settings: Guideline Development, Adaptation, Implementation and Performance Measurement. As found at: http://www.g-i-n.net/conference/10th-conference/monday/2-45-pm-to-5-45-pm/lang-63.pdf 

 6 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. July 31, 2018. Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on FDA’s new efforts to advance antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary settings. As found at: https://www.fda.gov/newsevents/newsroom/pressannouncements/ucm615245.htm 

7 World Health Organization. February 8, 2018. Antibiotic Resistance. News. Fact Sheet. As found at:  http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance  

8  Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE, Light B, Parrillo JE, Sharma S, Suppes R, Feinstein D, Zanotti S, Taiberg L, Gurka D, Kumar A, Cheang M. June 2006. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival inhuman septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2006 Jun;34(6):1589-96. U.S. National Library of Medicine, The National Institutes of Health. As found at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16625125  

9  ER Visits for UTIs Add Almost $4 Billion a Year in Unnecessary Healthcare Costs. As found at: https://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/infectious-diseases-conditions/er-visits-utis-add-almost-4-billion-year-unnecessary-healthcare-costs     

 10   U-Tube. As found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kc9bSKpi-7c 

 11 Sepsis Alliance. Sepsis New. Number One Cause of Readmissions. As found at: http://sepsis.org/news/2016/number_one_cause_of_readmissions/ Sepsis Fact Sheet 2018. 

 12 How Common and Preventable are Sepsis-Associated Deaths in Hospitals? Source: Henry Ford Health System. Found at: https://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/sepsis/how-common-and-preventable-are-sepsis-associated-deaths-hospitals

 13 Jean-Louis Vincent, September 13, 2012. Increasing awareness of sepsis: World Sepsis Day. Critical Care. 2012; 16(5): 152. U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. As found at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3682256/  

14  Kathryn Fingar, Ph.D., M.P.H., and Raynard Washington, Ph.D. November 2015. Trends in Hospital Readmissions for Four High-Volume Conditions, 2009-2013. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. As found at: https://www.hcupus. ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb196-Readmissions-Trends-High-Volume-Conditions.jsp 

 15 Sepsis Alliance. Sepsis Fact Sheet 2018. As found at: http://www.sepsis.org/sepsis-alliancenews/ fifty-five-percent-americans-heard-sepsis-nations-third-leading-killersepsis-alliancesurvey- reveals/; https://www.sepsis.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Sepsis-Fact-Sheet-2018.pdf  

16  R Kucheria, P Dasgupta, S H Sacks, M S Khan, N S Sheerin. February 8, 2015. Urinary tract infections: new insights into a common problem. Postgraduate Medical Journal 2005;81:83-86. As found at: https://pmj.bmj.com/content/81/952/83 

 17 Davenport, M, Mach, K., L. M. Niaz Banaei, Wang, T., and Liao, J. C. National Institutes of Health. New and developing diagnostic technologies for urinary tract infections. As found at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473291/  

18 CDC - Urinary-tract infections send millions of people to the doctor each year. November 11, 2013. Consumer Reports. As found at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/healthscience/ urinary-tract-infections-send-millions-of-people-to-the-doctor-eachyear/ 2013/11/11/185c4748-c944-11e2-9245 773c0123c027_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.cddb756bba72 

 19 Davenport, M, Mach, K., L. M.1 Niaz Banaei, Wang, T., and Liao, J. C. National Institutes of Health. New and developing diagnostic technologies for urinary tract infections. As found at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473291/ 

 20 Ana L. Flores-Mireles, Jennifer N. Walker, Michael Caparon, and Scott J. Hultgren. April 8, 2015. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. As found at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4457377/  

21 SM Jacobson. 2008. Complicated Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections due to E. Coli and P. Mirabilis. As found at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223845/ 

22 Ford, A. July 2017. With diversion, lower blood culture contamination rates. As found at: http://captodayonline.com/diversion-lower-blood-culture-contamination-rates/ 

23 Anne Elixhauser, PhD, Bernard Friedman, PhD, and Elizabeth Stranges, MS. October 2011. Septicemia in U.S. Hospitals, 2009, Statistical Brief #122. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs. As found at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK65391/ and http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm  

 24 C. Lee Ventola, April 2015. The Antibiotic Resistance Crisis. Part 1: Causes and Threats. Pharmacy & Therapeutics: 2015 Apr; 40(4): 277–283. U.S. National Library. National Institutes of Health. As found at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4378521/