Statement in IDSA Guideline

"Because treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis is usually empirical, it is likely that some women will be treated with a drug that does not have in vitro activity against the uropathogen. As the population resistance prevalence of a specific agent increases, the likelihood of failure outweighs the benefits of using the drug empirically."

Clinical Applications

Blood-bourne Infections - Leading Cause of Death & Increased Healthcare Costs

#1 Cause for Readmissions

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Infections are the  #1 cause for hospital readmissions generating a 62% rate of 30-day readmissions, more than 1.1 million/year (14) costing U.S. hospitals more than $2 billion, annually(15).


It is now the leading cause of death in U.S. hospitals (3) costing $24 billion per year,(4) 


1.6M U.S. Will Develop Sepsis

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The Centers for Disease Control estimates 2 million Americans are afflicted annually by antibiotic-resistant pathogens (2). 


More than 1.6 million U.S. adults develop sepsis (22). 

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There are 20-30 million bacterial blood cultures performed annually in the U.S, alone (24). 

Every 2 min a Person Dies from Sepsis

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Bloodstream infections now take more lives than HIV, breast cancer and prostate cancer combined (13). 


Over 258,000 people die from antibiotic resistant bacterial sepsis every year in the U.S., one every 2 minutes (23)


Infections affect over 26 million people annually, and is the largest killer of children (> 5 million children/yr)(5).

$20B in Healthcare Costs

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The total economic burden placed on the U.S. economy by antibiotic resistant infections has been estimated to be as high as $20 billion in health care costs and $35 billion a year in lost productivity (25).

20-30M Blood Cultures per Year

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According to a 2019 study published in JAMA, records of 568 patients from six U.S. hospitals who either died in the hospital or who were discharged to hospice , showed sepsis was present in more than half (300) of the hospitalizations and directly caused death in more than one-third (198) of cases.(9)

$18-$29K in Treatment Costs per Patient

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  • Estimates regarding the medical cost per patient with an antibiotic-resistant infection range from $18,588 to $29,069. (11)



Urinary tract infections

100M UTI Tests Annually

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100 million UTI tests are performed annually costing $billions in healthcare costs (1).


In the U.S., there are an estimated 10.5 million U.S. office visits for UTIs where antibiotic sensitivity testing could be performed.(1).

$4B in ER Visit Costs

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UTIs are one of the leading causes of ER visits, cost over $4-billion annually.(12)


Approximately forty percent (40%) of all nosocomial (hospital acquired) infections are UTIs with more than 1 million catheter-associated UTIs/year in the U.S. alone(21). 

50% of U.S. will contract a UTI

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Fifty percent (50%) of the U.S. population suffers from a UTI at least once in their lifetime(19). 


80% of women will contract a UTI13 and 20%-30% of these women will suffer from recurring bouts of UTIs (18) throughout their lifetimes. 


Of the 150 million UTI’s per year worldwide(16) 

UTI's - a significant addressable market

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Public Health Data: Urinary Tract Infections (UTI): https://www.rightdiagnosis.com/u/urinary_tract_infections/stats.htm

The following statistics relate to the prevalence of Urinary tract infections:


  • 1 in 5 women will develop UTIs in their lifetime in America (Kidney and Urology Foundation of America)
  • 34% of adults over 20 self-reported having at least one occurrence of a urinary tract infection in the US 1988-1994 (Weighted Analysis of 1988-1994 NHANES, 2003, NIDDK)
  • 13.9% of adults aged 20-74 who self-reported having urinary tract infections were men in the US 1988-1994 (Weighted Analysis of 1988-1994 NHANES, 2003, NIDDK)
  • 53.5% of adults aged 20-74 who self-reported having urinary tract infections were women in the US 1988-1994 (Weighted Analysis of 1988-1994 NHANES, 2003, NIDDK)

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Incidence Statistics about Urinary Tract Infections:

The following statistics relate to the incidence of Urinary tract infections:


  • 34% of adults over 20 in the USA 1988-1994 (Weighted Analysis of 1988-1994 National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003)
  • 794 per 10,000 adults aged over 20 had at least one occurrence of a urinary tract infection in the US 1988-1994 (Weighted Analysis of 1999 NAMCS, 2003, NIDDK)

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Physician office visit statistics for Urinary Tract Infections:

Physician office visits for Urinary tract infections: 9.1 million visits were made to physician offices regarding urinary tract infections in the US 2000 (Weighted Analysis of 1999 NAMCS, 2003, NIDDK)
The following are statistics from various sources about physician office visits and Urinary tract infections:

  • 8.318 million visits (NIDDK)
  • 9.1 million adult physician office visits in the USA 2001 (Weighted Analysis of 2000 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2003)
  • 7.9 million adult physician office visits in the USA 2000 (Weighted Analysis of 1999)
  • 10 million physician office visits in America (Kidney and Urology Foundation of America, 2002)

Physician office visits for Urinary tract infections: In the United States, urinary track infections (UTIs) account for about 4 million ambulatory-care visits each year, representing about 1% of all outpatient visits. (Source: excerpt from Urinary Tract Infections: DBMD)

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Hospitalization Statistics for Urinary Tract Infections:

The following are statistics from various sources about hospitalizations and Urinary tract infections:

  • 0.11% (13,865) of hospital consultant episodes were for infections of genitourinary tract in pregnancy in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 98% of hospital consultant episodes for infections of genitourinary tract in pregnancy required hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 100% of hospital consultant episodes for infections of genitourinary tract in pregnancy were for women in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 10% of hospital consultant episodes for infections of genitourinary tract in pregnancy required emergency hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 1.2 days was the mean length of stay in hospitals for infections of genitourinary tract in pregnancy in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 1 days was the median length of stay in hospitals for infections of genitourinary tract in pregnancy in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 25 was the mean age of patients hospitalised for infections of genitourinary tract in pregnancy in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 100% of hospital consultant episodes for infections of genitourinary tract in pregnancy occurred in 15-59 year olds in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0% of hospital consultant episodes for infections of genitourinary tract in pregnancy occurred in people over 75 in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0% of hospital consultant episodes for infections of genitourinary tract in pregnancy were single day episodes in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0.031% (16,103) of hospital bed days were for infections of genitourinary tract in pregnancy in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)

Society Statistics for Urinary Tract Infections

Hospitalizations for Urinary tract infections: 


  • 1.5 million in America (Kidney and Urology Foundation of America, 2002)